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"Exophthamos " (details from "Portrait of an unknown man") (see related A), 1851 I. Khrutsky (1810-1851) Art Institute, Minsk, Belarus

Sign: unilateral right exophthalmos - perhaps large ocular globe (myopia?).

Signal: in adults, in particular in females, thyroid orbito-pathology can cause unilateral or bilateral exophthalmos - the same is true for glaucoma (may be associated with opacification). In children, infections, neuroblastoma and leukemia (usually associated with bilaterality) are prime considerations. 

Comment: a medical history (anamnesis) is critical to define the pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis and prognosis of exophthalmos. 


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