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MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY NOMENCLATURE VOCABULARY

ROOTS ETYMOLOGY IDEOLOGY

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Homo sapiens  differs most from other primates because it searches for "cures" and grasp the nature of nature. Notions in words like life, death, wellness, or love incorporate timeless universal notions that arise from mythic emblems, icons, legends, ballads, and lullabies and like an Egyptian cartouche, convey reality to the abstract. While etymology seeks to uncover linguistic roots of words, ideonomy seeks to illuminate the ideas implicit in a word. The "idea in idea" is "what is on you mind" and this reflects who you are.   

Pandora Word Box is a repository of "ideas" conveyed by words and works of art in a Medical perspective. 

Below is a short Medical Terminology emphasized in the domain of Clinical Genetics and Teratology. The definitions are informal and short. Expanded vistas are found by searching this website for "word", "overviews", "fine art images", or "Aphorisms".   

NOTE: signs associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are shown in bold.

 ~ Acro; Greek for distal as in acro-x,y,z 

~ Acrodysplasia; abnormalities of distal structures

~ Acromegaly; enlarged distal structures 

~ Adipose; fatty, aleipha in Greek, olyj or oil in Ukr

~ Ala nasi; lateral area (wing) of the nostril

~ Alcohol; fluid product from natural fermentation of sugars, mainly see ethanol 

~ Alcoholism; see addiction, implies dependence and negative impacts, see teratogen.

~ Allele; alternative form of a gene

~ Alopecia; lack of hair, see trichosis 

~ Anamnesis; patient"s recall of symptoms, signs and circumstances 

~ Aneurysm; segmental dilatation of an artery, vein or other tubular structures due to flaws of its walls

~ Angioma; vascular tumor (general term - see hemangiona etc.- see ecatsia)

~ Anophthalmia; see microphthalmia

~ Antenna; detector of signals generally invisible and generally by touch

~ Antepartum; preferred term inclusive of teratothanasia, ultrasound imaging, stillbirth, etc.

~ Apathetic, apathy; lacking “pathos” or emotion

~ Apathy; lacking (see) “pathos” or spirit (emotion)

~ Arthro; arthron implies articulation or joint, as in arthropod, arthritis, …

~ Arthrogryposis; implies multiple congenital joint contractures in diverse body parts

~ Audio; sound as in audible, audience ... 

~ Auricle; external ear, ear lobe 

~ Autosomal; loci or genes located on autosomal chromosomes thus neither on the X nor Y chromosomes

~ Birth defect; flawed political popular term for congenital anomaly 

~ Blastopathy; abnormalities of the blastula (see blastula)

~ Blastula; early development of a fertilized egg when the morula (solid sphere of cells) develops a cavity (blast), from Greek “blastos” for “sprout”.

~ Cancer; uncontrolled division of abnormal cells spreading in a pattern suggestive of the legs of a crab from Greek “kakinos” or Latin “cancer”.

~ Caviat; be aware, to note 

~ Cele; or coele, in Medicine implies cavity, hernia, swelling.

~ Clone; in essence, a colony and in Medicine group of cells or organisms identical to an ancestor

~ Collagen; extracellular "glue" protein, see colloid 

~ Colloid; a gel like substance glue-like

~ Coloboma; gap (like a cut) generally of ocular structures often irides

~ Crease; folding or groove

~ Credo; belief 

~ Cross-bread; preferred term for intra-cohort breading instead of in-breading

~ Cutis; skin 

~ Cutis marmorata; pink marble like skin implying mottled skin 

~ Cupid; mythological emblem mainly denoting temptation driving desire

~ Cupid bow; outline of the vermillion of the upper lip in a shape of an arch, Cupid shot love arrows and humans blow kisses from the upper lip

~ Cupid bow flat or not evident; the sign observed among instances of fetal alcohol effects, syndrome, or spectrum disorders

~ Cyclopia; fused eyes (not a failure of "splitting") 

~ Deformation; external causes of anomalies, dys-morphism

~ Diagnosis; hypothetical label - synthesis of (objective) signs/natural history with (hypothetical) pathogenesis/etiology

~ Disease; mental or physical instability, away from homeostasis 

~ Dis; or dys for “rupture” of a process, see more in dys 

~ Disruption; implies external negative impact 

~ Dominant; implies pathology due to the presence of one thus single mutated pathogenic allele

~ Dorsal; often used to denote "supra" (during embryogenesis the occiput may be included in dorsal)

~ Dys; or dis as in disease, root for "anomaly" or ab-normal, note also “dis” 

~ Dysmorphology; study of disproportions, anomalies 

~ Dysplasia; altered tissue formation - normal cells but disorganized - e.g. hamartoma, e.g. polyp, nevus, neurofibroma 

~ Dysruption; see disruption for rupture of a developing process 

~ Ear; or auricle, also inner, middle and outer or external ears form the auditory system

~ Ectasia; implies distension - dilatation related to altered "flow" in a tubular structure in contrast to aneurysm due to flaws in walls

~ Ectoderm; ecto implies external

~ Edema; from “oid” for “to swell” in Greek

~ Emaciate; “macer” in Latin for thin, lost flesh

~ Embryo; an organism during early development and giving rise to a fetus

~ Embryopathy; anomalies of the embryo

~ Epi; above as in epi-x,y,z 

~ Epidemidermis; skin (above the "flesh") 

~ Epicanthus; epi - canthus - above the (ocular inner) angle 

~ Ethanol; eth and ol denote a chain of two carbons one of which is linked to OH ethyl group (EtOH) expressed by the chemical formula  CH3-CH2-OH; a liquid flammable addictive human psychotoxin (an inhibitor of inhibitions), see alcoholism

~ Ethics; see "ethos", in essence, the “thuth”

~ Ethos (soul), ethnic; natural of a group

~ Ethnos; strictly speaking it denotes a distinct people and points towards ethos and ethics  

~ Etiology; true cause, see Etios 

~ Etios; Greek for spirit pointing to "true" 

~ Eso; Greek for "inward" as in esotropia 

~ Esotropia; inward or convergent strabismus or squint 

~ Etymology; the true origin, mainly of words

~ Exo; Greek for "out" as in exotic, exotropia 

~ Exotropia; outward or divergent strabismus 

~ Face, facade; front, communication organ/devise 

~ Facies; a face that “speaks”, conveys a meaning

~ FAE; fetal alcohol effect, see FAS and FASD

~ FAS; fetal alcohol syndrome, implies full array of concurrent signs, see FASD

~ FASD; fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, implies incomplete array of FAS signs

~ Facoma; see facomatosis 

~ Facomatosis; see phacomatosis

~ Fertile; capable of reproduction, fruitful, fecund  

~ Fistula; a tubular hallow abnormal canal or tunnel-like between organs or the exterior

~ FTT, failure to thrive, implies delay of mental, physical, growth and maturation

~ Gene, genius, generator; messenger

~ Genetics; the study of inherited and or hereditary organisms or their components

~ Genome; the totality of genes of an organism

~ Glossa; tongue, language

~ Gyneco-mastia; developed female breast in a male 

~ Hamartoma; circumscribed areas of dysplastic tissues (facomas or phacomas) prone to uncontrolled growth and malignant changes 

~ Hamartomatosis; systemic multiple, generally congenital, bening neoplasias, often pre-malilgnant, e.g. multiple neurfibromatosis 

~ Hamartosis; see Hamartomatosis 

~ Health; optimal homeostasis of an organism at a particular stage of development and lifespan (includes a mental optimal state)

~ Hemangiona; vascular tumor (general term akin to angioma, see ectasia) 

~ Hirsutism; excess of hair 

~ Holo; means totality, whole, wholly 

~ Holoprosencephaly; a forebrain undivided into left and right hemispheres

~ Homeostasis; health, stability 

~ Hyper; prefix for excess, see hyper-x,y,z 

~ Hyperplasia; enlargement on the basis of more numerous cells

~ Hypertelorism; increased inter-ocular distance, see telorism 

~ Hypertrichosis; hirsutism or excess of hair, see trichosis 

~ Hypertrophy; enlargement including of cells 

~ Hypotelorism; decreased inter-ocular distance, see telorism 

~ Hypotrichosis; sparse hair, see tricosis, alopecia 

~ Ionizing; energy capable of converting atoms and molecules into ions

~ Implication; plica (fold), “folded in” 

~ IMV; informative morphogenic variant 

~ Iridoschisis, see Coloboma

~ IUGR; intrauterine growth retardation

~ Leukemia; strictly it denotes “white blood”, in Medicine an abnormal malignant excessive proliferation of “white blood cells” (leukocytes)

~ Life; individual organism capable of capturing energy for its perpetuation

~ Lipid; a wax, fat, sterol, vitamin, glyceride 

~ Locus; position on a chromosome 

~ Lobe; a part of a generally flat and round structure

~ Lobule; a small lobe

~ Macro; big, large as in macro-x,y,z 

~ Macrocephaly; large head 

~ Macrognathia; generally referred to as prognatism 

~ Malar; cheek bone or zygoma, see zygote

~ Malformation; a failure of morphogenesis (studied by Dysmorphology)

~ Maxillar; vernacular for jaw, cheek bone or malar from Latin "mala" 

~ Micro; small as in micro-x,y,z 

~ Microcephaly; reduced head size by 2 or more standard deviations  

~ Micrognathia; reduced size mandible or chin 

~ Microphthalmia - implies existence of an under-developed and immature ocular globe

~ Monozygotic; origin from one single zygote

~ Morphology; shape, proportions  

~ Mutagen; agent that alters genetic codes, heritable or not 

~ Nature; all living, see life

~ Navel; see umbilicus, a ship is tied to the shore, the baby (ship) is tied to the placenta (attached to the mother)

~ Neuroblast; blast implies source of cells 

~ Neoplasia; new tissue, by implication abnormal or distinct from the original

~ Neurofibromatosis; a systemic multi-tissue defect due to a single autosomal gene mutation 

~ Nomenclature; clue given by a name 

~ Norm; feature observed in the majority (95%) of subjects 

~ Normal, norm; prevalent, optimal 
~ Nosocomial; aimment acquired in a hospital 

~ Nosology; categorization of ailments akin but not identical to natural history  
~ Nostalgia; remembrances with yearning, longing, a sense of loss 
~ Nostology; mental deterioration resulting from senility 

~ Nostril; nares, nasal external opening 
~ Obsession; unwanted intrusive compelling persistent recurring ideas and feelings 
                    may be a prodrome of zeal, mania, madness 

~ Omphalocele; herniated omphalocn or navel, umbilical or central abdominal area 
~ Omphalon; implies "central" 

~ Oncogene; gene increasing carcinogenesis risk 

~ Organ, organism; inter-dependent parts

~ Palpebral fissure; implies “eye opening size”

~ Parlance; professional jargon 

~ Pathos; implies development of a "sense" or "feeling"

~ Pathogenesis; in Medicine, mechanism generating an anomaly 

~ Pectus; shield, sternum, see pectus-carinatum/excavatum 

~ Pectus carinatum; keel, ridged sternum 

~ Pectus excavatum: cavity, trench, sunken sternum

~ Penetrance; proportion of individuals expressing an inherited gene 

~ Phacomatosis; mostly neuro-cutanteous and/or vascular reflecting neoplastic growth of hamartomatous tissues (see hamartoma) 

~ Philtrum; concavity (fosa) under the nose

~ Phocomelia; foca (seal), melia (limbs)

~ Phrenia; mind, as in oligophrenia

~ Phrenology; study of the mind 

~ Physiognomy; study of facial signals

~ Piggery; enterprise of breading swine (often a resource for Teratology investigations

~ Placenta; a flat, round, and brittle fetal organ (resembling a cheesecake) attached to the uterus and connected per an umbilical cord to a fetus surrounded by membrane

~ Plastos; element in dysplasia, metaplasia, aplasia, ... in Greek - implies "molding" as in "shaping" thus proportions, organization ...  

~ Pleotropism; plethora (multiplicity) of signs caused by a gene mutation 

~ Primacy; most important 

~ Proboscis; tube like nose or snout 

~ Prognathism; prominent jaw or macrognathia 

~ Prolabium; central part of the upper lip

~ Ptosis; fallen 

~ Radiation; energy emitted in waves of subatomic particles

~ Recessive: implies impacts of both alleles (see alternative in "dominant");

~ Regeneration; restoration of destroyed cells with minimal or no flaws

~ Rhino; root for words referring to nose

~ Rudiment; preferred term to underdeveloped, etc.

~ Schisis; cut, separation, division, gap

~ Sign; objective evidence of an event

~ Signal; significance or interpretation of a sign 

~ Simian crease; single transverse palmar flexion crease

~ Sinciput; see next

~ Sinciputal; in brief, anterior area of the forehead (site of frontal encephaloceles)  

~ Squint; strabismus - in medical parlance deviated eye/eyes 

~ Sterile; infertile

~ Stigma; a signal or mark generally negative

~ Strabismus; or heterotopia, deviated eye or eyes, see esotropia  

~ Sydney crease; proximal palmar flexion crease reaching the ulnar border 

~ Symptom; perceived sensations by an individual capable of describing and transmitting them for a physician to interpret to what extend symptoms qualify as a sign (see sign)

~ Syn; root for together, joined, confluent as in symphony

~ Syndrome; concurrent characteristic consistent symptoms and signs

~ Synophris; convergent eyebrows  

~ Telorism; distance between paired structures, see hyper-telorism 

~ Teratogen; any environmental cause of developmental anomalies

~ Teratology; discipline concerned with teratogens (see above)

~ Teratoma; a tumor composed of cells derived from each of the three embryonal layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm), implies and independently growing a disorganized mass of cells that may be malignant in nature 

~ Teratothanasia; embryonal or fetal death due to fatal defects

~ Thelarche; onset of postnatal breast (mammary) development usually at puberty (in Greek thele is nipple)

~ Torticollis; implies torsion or twisted neck, related to tort, contort, torture, etc.

~ Torsion; see torture

~ Torture; methods to produce pain inducing contortions

~ Toxin; poison, a cause of death or illness, from organic or inorganic source, implies impacts from miniscule or modest doses (virtually all substances at high doses are toxic – including oxygen)

~ Trichosis; pertaining hair, see hypo-hyper, alopecia 

~ Trisomy; three bodies, here denotes a chromosome in triplicate 

~ Twin dizygotic; two individuals gestated concurrently from two fertilized eggs

~ Twin monozygotic; one of two individuals from the same fertilized egg

~ Umbilicus; or navel, the center of an individual, in humans the attachment site of the placental cord, see navel

~ Usual; among the most frequent, customary, implies “normal”

~ Variant; "different", rare but within the 95% considered as "normal" 

~ Vermillion; red color, in medicine visible mucosa of lips 

~ X-linked; implies loci on the X chromosome 

~ Y-linked; implies loci on the Y chromosome

~ Zygote, zygoma: yoked, sperm-egg conjugated