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"Heraclito Heraclitus" (see related A | B | C | D | E), 1635 Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

to portray pessimism some painters depicted Heraclitus of Ephesus (540-470 BC) who felt pity for humanity because he knew that implicitly in life "all is in flux". (see Heraclitus by Brugghen) As a counterpoint, some painters portrayed the "laughing" philosopher Democritus of Abdera (460-370 BC). (see Democritus by Rubens and Brugghen).