King Ludwig I of Bavaria (1786-1868) was an enthusiastic champion of fine arts - he supported the brotherhood of German speaking painters now known as "Nazarenes". Furthermore he built many of the outstanding structures and created many institutions that made Bavaria into one of the most progressive areas in Europe, a fact that persists to the present. The examples include: the Munich University (1826); the first railway in Germany; the New (Neue) Pinakothek and Glyphotek; and initiated the October Beer Fest celebrated since. Ludwig abdicated in 1848 during the "anarchist-socialist-communist" revolt that swept across western Europe. Nonetheless, his wealth, connections, and influence persisted. His son Otto became King of Greece (please note related images). Among his "love affairs", among the most publicized was with the notorious Lola Montez.
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