Medicine
~ MEDICINE      start see> MEDDLE
~ MEDICINA     in ukr MEDYCZYNA = MEDICINE
^u                        CHYNA   AGENT
~ MEDICINA CHIRURGICA  id+ | SURGICAL MEDICINE |
                       see> SURGERY
                       see> CHEIRO
~ MEDICINE             id+ | MEDITATED
                             MEDIATED
                             REMEDIATED
                             MODULATED
                             MEASURED |
  note preceding entries MEDDLE  MEDIA  MEDIC  MEDICAGO
       MEDICAL ETHICS  MEDICAL HUMANISM   MEDICATION
  note etymology linking MEDICINE with MEASURED MEDIA
       and extensions toward MEET  MEETING  MEZZAN
       MEZZANINE  MEDITATE  MEDULLA  MEDIOCRE
  lat  MEDICUS = PHYSICIAN       sug> DOCTRINE
  sp   MEDICO    same            sug> MEDICATE
       MEDIR     TO MEASURE      sug> TEMPER
  lat  META      GOAL            sug> MOTIVE
                 TURNING POINT   sug> CRITICAL
                 BEYOND A POINT  sug> DILEMMA
  note           extension toward medical CHARLATANS
  Welch WRACH    HAG as in MAGIC HAG or MEDICINE
        WRATY    TO LIE
  rus   WRACH    PHYSICIAN
  myth> APOLLO   known as " THE HEALER "
                 father of see> AESCULAPIUS
  lit+ " THE ART OF MEDICINE
         I (Apollo) GAVE THE WORLD ...
         LOVE NO VERB CAN CURE "
  in Metamorphoses [13] 4;533 by OVID [#]
  lit+ " THE DESIRE TO TAKE MEDICINE
         IS PERHAPS ONE OF THE
  MAJOR DISTINGUISHING HUMAN TRAITS
  LACKING IN OTHER ANIMALS "
  attr to William OSLER [#]
  med> MEDICINE RELIES ON ARTS AND SCIENCES
       if RESTRICTED to solely the DOMAIN OF SCIENCES
  MEDICINE BECOMES INHUMAN
  consider MEDITRINA  REMEDY  REMEDIAL  IRREMEDIABLE
           MEDIATE  MEDICATE
  lit+ med> hx> THE GOLDEN AGE OF ARABIC MEDICINE IS
                REFLECTED IN THE TALES OF
  "THE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS"
  among the stories told by SCHEHERAZADE [#]
  are those starting on the 435th NIGHT
  ABOUT ABU AL-HUSN AND HIS SLAVE GIRL see> TAWADDUD ...
  SCHEHEREZADE RESUMED HER STORY AND SAID
  "A GIRL WITH EYES LIKE GAZELLES ...
  NOSE LIKE THE EDGE OF SCIMITAR FINE
  CHEEKS LIKE ANEMONES OF BLOOD RED SHINE
  MOUTH LIKE SOLOMON'S SEAL AND SIGN AND
  TEETH LIKE NECKLACES OF PEARLS IN LINE ...
  A NAVEL HOLDING AN OUNCE OF OIL OF BENZOIN ...
  HIND PARTS HEAVIER THAN TWO HILLS OF SAND ... "
  TAWADDUD WAS THE ONLY SLAVE AMONG MANY
  WHO REMAINED WITH HER MASTER
  AFTER HE SQUANDERED HIS INHERITANCE ... "
  THIS FABULOUS CREATURE ONE DAY
  SUGGESTED TO HER IMPOVERISHED MASTER
  THAT HE SELL HER FOR TEN THOUSAND DINARS ...
  TAWADDUD OFFERED TO ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
  PUT TO HER ON SYNTAX POETRY JURISPRUDENCE
  ARITHMETIC ... MEDICINE ... "
  IT TOOK TWENTY SEVEN NIGHTS
  FROM NIGHT 436 to 462  TO TELL ABOUT
  HER QUESTIONING AND THE ANSWERS TAWADDUD GAVE
  AND WHICH FAITHFULLY REFLECT
  THE MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE OF ARABIC MEDICINE
  DURING THEIR GOLDEN AGE
  sug> ARAB
  hx> THE HISTORY OF WESTERN EUROPEAN MEDICINE
      IS INTERTWINED WITH THE HISTORY OF HUMANISM
  see> HUMAN
  hx> THE RENAISSANCE ENDING THE DARK AGES or
      MEDIEVAL OBSCURANTISM INCLUDED THE
  REVIVAL OF ETHICAL HUMANISTIC SCIENTIFIC MEDICINE
  note how THE GAUL AND CELTIC PEOPLE
           CONTRIBUTED THEIR PENCHANT FOR
  HYPERBOLIC LYRICAL ROMANTIC NOTIONS AND
  MYSTICAL SENSUALITY WHILE THE
  TEUTONS CONTRIBUTED THEIR LOVE OF WAR AND
  BRAVERY AND THIRST FOR CONQUEST
  THE CRUSADES STIMULATED THE FORMATION OF
  MILITARY AND MONASTIC ORDERS as illustrated by
  THE HOSPITALIERS WHO PROTECTED
  MONASTERIES WHICH ALSO SERVED AS HOSPITALS
  note Benito de NURSIA later SAN BENITO [#]
       who founded in the VI century
  THE BENEDICTINE ORDER and that one of their
  MANY FAMOUS MONASTERIES was
  MONTE CASSINO DESTROYED BY THE ALLIES DURING
  WORLD WAR II
  DOCUMENTS INCREASINGLY POINT OUT THAT IT WAS
  DESTROYED NEEDLESSLY              sug> BRUTE
  MONTE CASSINO SERVED AS A SEMINAL STARTING
  POINT FOR THE DISSEMINATION OF RENAISSANCE MEDICINE
  EARLY PHYSICIANS IN ITALY WERE PRIESTS OR MONKS
  BY THE XIIc THE ROMAN CHURCH STARTED
  CURTAILING MONASTIC MEDICINE
  HOWEVER WITH THE EMERGENCE OF CITY STATES SUCH AS
  FLORENCE VENICE and GENOA
  MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS FOSTERED MEDICAL SERVICES
  IN 1204 A HOSPITAL SPIRITUS SANCTUS OPENED IN
  ROME FOLLOWED BY ANOTHER FAMOUS HOSPITAL NEAR THE
  NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL OF PARIS AROSE
  THE HOSPITAL HOTEL DIEU WHICH STILL STANDS
  THE ST BARTHOLOMEW HOSPITAL OF LONDON
  ALSO OPENED IN THAT PERIOD
  note that THE EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE or BYZANTIUM
       ESCAPED THE DARK AGES
  BYZANTIUM SPREAD ITS INFLUENCE ON
  SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY
  note SALERNO LOCATED SLIGHTLY SOUTH OF
       NAPLES IS PROBABLY THE FIRST SECULAR
  MEDICAL UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED IN WHAT
  IS REFERRED TODAY AS WESTERN EUROPE
  WHEN THE REGION WAS CONQUERED BY NORMANS
  GERMANS LOMBARDS SPANIARDS
  IT WAS NATURAL FOR THE MEDICAL SCHOOL or
  COLLEGIUM HIPPOCRATICUM TO AMALGAMATE
  GREEK LATIN ARAB AND HEBREW MEDICAL TRADITIONS
  WHICH RAPIDLY SPREAD ACROSS EUROPE
  note SALERNO BECAME KNOWN AS
       "CIVITAS HIPPOCRATICA" AND AMONG THE
  PROFESSORS WAS A WOMAN KNOWN AS
  TROTULA [#] OF SALERNO
  WHO LIVED DURING THE 11th c and IS REMEMBERED
  FOR HER TREATISE ON SKIN DISORDERS  sug> DERMATOLOGY
  AND DISORDERS OF WOMEN or
  "PASSIONIBUS MULIERUM CURANDORUM"
  TROTULA was also known as TROTULA MAJOR
  SHE WAS A MOST FAMOUS PHYSICIAN and postulated that
  MALES COULD ALSO BE THE CAUSE OF INFERTILITY
  A DARING NOTION THEN         sug> GYNECOLOGY
  note in 1231 EMPEROR FREDERICO II or FREDERIC II
       became THE MECENAS or PATRON OF THE
  SALERNO UNIVERSITY
  THE LEADING PUBLICATION WAS
  "REGIMEN SANITATIS SALEMITANUM"
  PROBABLY WRITTEN BY THE SPANIARD
  Arnaldo de VILLANOVA [#]
  A MANUAL OF HYGIENE DEALING WITH
  DIET  SLEEP  AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES
  note HUNDREDS OF OTHER PUBLICATIONS
       INTRODUCED WORKS FROM
  SOURCES IN ARABIC THAT RESURRECTED
  THE IMPORTANT VIEWS BY PRODIGIES SUCH AS
  HIPPOCRATES the father of MEDICINE
  GALEN
  ISAAC JUDAEUS
  HALY ABBAS
  by the XIVc THE UNIVERSITY IN BOLOGNA
  GAINED PROMINENCE WHERE THE DOMINICAN
  Theodoric de LUCCA [#] 1205-1298 SUSTAINED
  ON THE BASIS OF HIS EXPERIENCES WITH THE CRUSADES
  THE IMPORTANCE OF CLEANSING WOUNDS AND THAT
  PURULENCE OR PUS WERE NOT HEALING AGENTS
  note Giuglemi SALICETI [#] 1219-1277
       ANOTHER PROMINENT SURGEON FROM BOLOGNA
  DECRIED CAUTERY AND FAVORED THE
  BISTURI from the ARAB for
  SCALPEL or SURGICAL KNIFE
  also apparently he was among the first to
  SUTURE PERIPHERAL NERVES
  note Tadeo ALDEROTI [#] 1223-1303 who published
       MEDICAL HISTORIES he called
  CONSILIA and today could be called
  sug> NOSOLOGY or CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES
  note Mondino de LUZZI [#] 1270-1326 reputed to be
       THE FIRST HUMAN ANATOMIST who published
  "ANATOMIA" based on his
  SYSTEMATIC DISSECTION OF HUMAN BODIES
  note POPE BONIFACE VIII SOON FORBID
      "THE ABUSE OF THE CADAVERS"
  PARTICULARLY THOSE OF CRUSADERS
  note ANOTHER EARLY MEDICAL SCHOOL AROSE IN
  MONTPELLIER FRANCE WHERE
  Arnaldo de VILANOVA [#] 1240-1313 SUSTAINED
  THAT MEDICINE MUST BENEFIT FROM EXPERIMENTATION
  note Raimundo LULIO [#] 1235-1315
       A MISSIONARY MONK
  APPARENTLY HE INTRODUCED READING GLASSES AND
  WROTE MANY MANUALS AND CONDUCTED EXPEDITIONS
  LULIO WAS STONED WHILE IN TUNISIA
  note Guy de CHAULIAC [#] 1300-1370
       CONSIDERED TO BE A SURGICAL PIONEER
  HE USED TRACTION TO REDUCE FRACTURES and
  OPERATED CATARACTS AND DRAINED ABSCESSES
  TO RELEASE THE "MATERIA PECCANS" or
  SINFUL or ROTTED MATTER
  note NEARLY CONCURRENTLY THE MEDICAL SCHOOL
       IN PARIS WAS ALSO FLOURISHING
  ALBERT MAGNO [#] 1193-1280 also called
  DOCTOR UNIVERSALIS WAS SANCTIFIED IN 1622 and
  CANONIZED IN 1931 FOR HIS ENORMOUS WORK IN
  BIOLOGY MEDICINE AND THEOLOGY
  AMONG HIS FAMOUS STUDENTS WAS A PHYSICIAN
  note PETRUS HISPANUS [#] who became
       POPE JOHN XXI [#]
  THE ONLY POPE PHYSICIAN
  note ANOTHER FAMOUS STUDENT who was a DOMINICAN
       Rogerio or Roger BACON [#] 1214-1294
  from OXFORD
  note OXFORD became a CENTER OF LEARNING
       in the IXc and by the XIIIc was flourishing
  BACON or DOCTOR MIRABILIS
  REPUDIATED SUPERSTITION AND SUSTAINED THAT
  TRUTH COULD ONLY BE REACHED BY STUDY AND EXPERIMENT
  note PADUA SOON BECAME THE PREMIER
       CENTER OF LEARNING AS ILLUSTRATED BY
  note Petrus APONENSIS or
       PIETRO D'ABANO [#] 1250-1316
  WHO AS AN EXPERT IN AVERROES and AVICENA WHO
  RECONCILED PRINCIPLES FROM ARAB MEDICINE WITH
  EUROPEAN TRADITIONS
  THE COURAGE OF ABANO PROBABLY ESTABLISHED
  THE REPUTATION OF PADUA AS THE BRIDGE LINKING
  ROMAN MEDICINE WITH THE EMERGING RENAISSANCE
  note MEMORABLE EFFORTS BY THE HUMANISTS
       Niccolo da LONIGO [#] 1428-1524 who
  STRIVED TO CORRECT HIPPOCRATIC AND
  GALENIC ERRORS INCLUDED in the
  HISTORIA NATURALIS by PLINY [#] THE ELDER
  note Jeronimo CARDAN [#] 1501-1576 WHO WROTE
       DE VITA PROPIA and exposed prevalent modes of
  MEDICAL MALPRACTICE
  note Thomas LINACRE [#] 1461-1524
       WHO SPREAD THE RENAISSANCE TO ENGLAND thus to
  OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE AND FOUNDED
  THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF LONDON
  note Francois FERNEL [#] 1497-1558 WHO OPPOSED
       BLINDING MEDICAL GALENIC TRADITIONS AND
  WROTE "UNIVERSA MEDICINA" THAT BECAME
  A STANDARD MEDICAL REFERENCE FOR A CENTURY
  WHERE HE SUSTAINED THE VIEW THAT
  DISEASES ORIGINATE WITHIN THE ORGANISM AND
  WERE NOT THE RESULT OF FLUX or MORBID FLUIDS
  note Gerolamo FRACASTORO [#] 1483-1553 [#]
       from VERONA and member of the
  UNIVERSITY OF PADUA was a  classmate of
  COPERNICUS and in 1536 he published the famous poem
  "SIPHILIDIS SIRVE DE MORBO GALLICO" after which
  SYPHILIS or SIPHILIS or SIFILIS is named
  for more see> SYPHILIS
  in 1546 FRACASTORO also described
  "DE CONTAGIONIBUS ET CONTAGIOSIS MORBIS" where he
  DEFINED FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF "CONTAGION" or
  CONTAGIOUS INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
  HE WAS THE FIRST TO SEPARATE BUBONIC FEVER from
  TYPHUS TIPHUS or TIFUS a term from
  lat TYPHOS for FEBRILE STUPOR
  FRACASTORO ALSO WAS THE FIRST WHO CONSIDERED
  TUBERCULOSIS TO BE AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE
  note Andres VESALIO [#] 1514-1564 was a
       native of BRUSELAS or BRUSSELS
  his father and other ancestors were PHYSICIANS
  his grandfather studied medicine in PAVIA and
  taught medicine in the newly established
  University of LEUVEN and served as the
  ROYAL PHYSICIAN TO THE EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN
  HIS SON the father of VESALIUS served as
  the EMPEROR'S APOTHECARY and later as his
  VALET DE CHAMBRE later he served his successor
  CHARLES V or CHARLES I of SPAIN
  VESALIUS studied in LEUVEN PARIS and VENICE and
  in 1537 received his DOCTORATE in PADUA and was
  immediately offered the CHAIR of
  SURGERY and ANATOMY and to be GUEST LECTURER in
  BOLOGNA and PISA
  VASALIUS ESTABLISHED THE HANDS-ON
  DIRECT OBSERVATION METHOD IN MEDICINE
  HE RELIED ON HUMAN CADAVERS
  A JUDGE MADE AVAIBLE BODIES OF EXECUTED CRIMINALS
  FOR DISSECTIONS
  in 1541 VESALIUS REALIZED THAT MANY ERRORS IN
  GALENIC TRADITIONS WERE DUE TO THE FACT THAT
  GALEN [#] STUDIED NOT HUMANS BUT APES FROM NORTH AFRICA
  in 1543 HE PUBLISHED HIS FIRST VERSION OF HIS
  OPUS MAGNUM  revised SEVERAL TIMES until 1555 as
  "DE HUMANI CORPORIS FABRICA"
  he documented several hundred erroneous notions
  perpetuated by GALENIC traditions and dogmatic
  adherence to notions attributed to ARISTOTLE [#]
  in 1538 he published his TABULAE ANATOMICAE SEX
  in 1539 the INSTITUTIONES ANATOMICAE
  note the political climate in Italy was deteriorating
       and VESALIUS feared the reaction of the ROMAN CHURCH
  AGAINST HIS METHODS AND DISSECTIONS
  VESALIUS LEFT PADUA to become physician
  to the court of EMPEROR CHARLES V and upon his resignation
  to PHILLIP II KING OF SPAIN
  in 1551 THE KING COMMISSIONED AN INQUIRY IN SALAMANCA
     TO DETERMINE THE RELIGIOUS IMPLICATIONS OF
  THE METHODS OF VESALIUS
  note VESALIUS UNDERTOOK A PILGRIMAGE TO JERUSALEM
       WHEN HIS FAMOUS STUDENT FALLOPIO [#] DIED
  ONCE AGAIN HE WAS OFFERED A CHAIR IN PADUA but
  on the return voyage he was shipwrecked and died in
  utter poverty at the premature age of 50
  note William HARVEY [#] another distinguished
       student in PADUA who described the
  HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  note William HARVEY [#]
       see> UNIVERSITY for PADUA UNIVERSITY HISTORY
  HARVEY [#] ESTABLISHED THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF
  BLOOD see> CIRCULATION
  note Philip or Felipe TEOFRASTO BOMBAST de HOHENHEIM
       being pompous he named himself PARACELSUS [#]
  to indicate his superiority over CELSO [#]
  then the famous Roman medical aristocrat
  PARACELSUS sustained the idea
  that DISEASES were DYNAMIC ENTITIES WHICH EVOLVED IN TIME
                now in medical parlance called
                "NATURAL HISTORY"
  that DISEASES had SPECIFIC CAUSES and CURES
                or ETIOLOGY PATHOGENESIS and THERAPY
  he introduced the idea of MEDICAL ECOLOGY
  being the first to stress OCCUPATIONAL DISORDERS
  PARACELSUS pursued the study of
  DRUGS or PHARMACOLOGY starting by the study of
  PURE and not MIXTURES of MULTIPLE AGENTS
  as was in vogue then now called POLYPHARMACY
  PARACELSUS investigated the effects of
  SULPHUR  COPPER  ANTIMONY  MERCURY  IRON
  lit+ maxim> "THE MOST PRECIOUS GIFT OF PHYSICIANS
               IS THEIR ART TO CURE AND AFTER THAT
               THE LOVE FOR OUR PATIENTS
               HOPE BEING THE CLUE FOR BOTH"
  attr to PARACELSUS
  Johann WEYER [#] in 1563 as a
  PIONEER OF PSYCHIATRY wrote
  "DE PRAESTIGLIS DAEMONUM" sustaining that
  WITCHES WERE NOTHING BUT MENTALLY ILL WOMEN
  THIS WORK CONTRADICTED THE
  1498 MALEFIC PUBLICATION or
  "MALLEUS MALEFICARUM" by the INQUISITION
  defining "DEMONOLOGY" and linking
  THE DEVIL with MENTAL ILLNESS which
  justified the TORTURE and DESTRUCTION of
  MENTALLY ILL INDIVIDUALS
  sc> hx> note a peculiar mandate by the USA
          CONGRESS RULED BY REPUBLICAN PARTY at the
  BEQUEST OF PRESIDENT G W BUSH [#] MANDATING THE
  NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH AS
  CENTERS OF MEDICAL SCIENCES TO EXPAND ITS SCOPE
  TO INCLUDE "ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE"   sug> VOODOO
  "TO ENCOURAGE" PRACTITIONERS OF     sug> MAGIC
  "ALTERNATIVE" CURES to be known as
  "COMPLEMENTARY HEALERS" and help them to
  SUBMIT THEIR APPROACHES TO SCIENTIFIC SCRUTINY
  note apparently it is estimated that 40% of
       Americans seek help from
  "ALTERNATIVE" medical practitioners
  hx> lit+  "CALIXTO and MELIBEA" or "CELESTINA"
            is an immortal tragic-comedy or
  TRAGICOMEDIA by Fernando de ROJAS [#]
  perhaps written in 1483  more certain is that
  it was printed in 1499 in BURGOS  a book held by
  the library of the HISPANIC SOCIETY of AMERICA in New York
  ROJAS was a native of PUEBLA de MONTALBAN
  a small suburb of TOLEDO
  ROJAS practiced LAW in nearby TALABERA until
  his death in 1541
  perhaps CELESTINA DID EXIST and inspired the
  author of CALIXTO reports how CELESTINA became an
  agent to help CALIXTO get the attention of MELIBEA
  CELESTINA about SIXTY is presented as a
  HIRSUTE ALCOHOLIC ROUE or CRONE with
  DARK COAL-EYED
  note arabic KOHL for ANTIMONY used then as a
       COSMETIC to DARKEN EYELIDS
  nicknamed "BARBUDA" or "THE BEARDED ONE"
  SHE DEFIES CLASSIFICATION and was called
  SATANICA or DEVELISH
  HER TEACHER WAS CLAUDINE  who was
  A PROCURESS and MIDWIFE WITH POWERS OF A QUACK
  WHO WAS ACCUSED OF BEING A WITCH when caught
  AT MIDNIGHT GATHERING EARTH AT A CROSSROAD
  such sites were used for EXECUTION and BURIAL
  from CLAUDINE CELESTINA GOT A TASTE FOR
  ALCOHOL and SEXUAL DEBAUCHERY
  CELESTINA HAD A PASSION FOR WINE and
  ROAMED THE STREETS OF TOLEDO WITH A
  WINE PITCHER OF WINE IN HAND
  AS MANY OTHER MEDICAL QUACKS
  CELESTINA REFLECTED THE WIDELY HELD BELIEF
  ROOTED IN MOORISH MEDICINE including in
  AVICENA [#] THAT OLD GOOD WINE WAS CURATIVE
  " ... QUITA LA TRISTEZA AL CORAZON
  PONE COLOR AL DESCOLORIDO
  CORAJE AL COBARDE
  CONFORTA LOS CEREBROS
  SACA EL FRIO DEL ESTOMAGO
  QUITA EL HEDOR DEL ALIENTO
  HACE SUDAR TODA AGUA MALA
  SANA EL MOMADIZO E LAS MUELAS
  SOSTIENE SIN HEDER EN LA MAR ... "
  or in eng
  "[THE WINE] PURGES HEART SADNESS AND
  PUTS COLOR TO THOSE WHO ARE PALE
  OFFERS COURAGE TO THE COWARD
  QUELLS THE BRAIN AND DISPELS
  CHILLS FROM THE BELLY AND
  THE STENCH FROM THE BREATH
  SWEATS OUT ALL EVIL HUMORS
  CURES HEAD COLDS AND TOOTHACHES AND
  PREVENTS NAUSEA ..."
  note DIPSAS or PITHONESSES or
       THE "PROCURERESSES" alluded to by
  OVID [#] had a similar
  UNQUENCHABLE THIRST thus the therm
  note DIPSOMANIA an affliction of
       CELESTINA who was also known for her
  MULTIFARIOUS activities characteristic of
  QUACKS and SORCERERS based not on
  knowledge as in the case of PHYSICIANS but
  on the BELIEF of PEOPLE
  ... " SHREWD and CUNNING ...
  SHE COULD EVOKE LUST AT WILL ..."
  or in old sp
  "HECHICERA, ASTUTA, SAGAZ ...
  PROMOUERA E PROUCORARA A LA LUXURIA SI QUIERE ..."
  note HECHO    = ACT DONE
       ASTUTA     CUNNING CAGEY FOXY
       SAGAZ      CRAFTY ASTUTE
       PROMOEURA  PROMOTE for put in MOTION
       PROUCORA   PROCURE
  note being a WITCH it was DANGEROUS
  note THE MAIN THING ABOUT A WITCH IS THAT
       SHE SHOULD BELIEVE IN HER OWN SPELLS ...
  HER MAIN MEDICATIONS DEALT WITH LUST ...
  note DURING THE INQUISITION a trade in
  LECHERY and APHRODISIACS and in
  "REMIENDOS VIRGINALES" or VIRGINAL REPAIRS
  WAS DANGEROUS and required a COVER or "FRONT"
  WHICH FOR CELESTINA WAS TO BE SEAMSTRESS which
  enabled her to open her door to
  MAIDENS PRIESTS and STUDENTS
  HER DWELLING WAS AN OLD SHACK WITH
  ROWS OF JARS WITH EXTRACTS FROM
  COW BEAR HORSE RABBIT ...
  A MEDIEVAL PHYSICIAN WAS COMPLETELY TRAINED
  "ONCE HE SWALLOWED THE INDIGESTIBLE
   MEDICAL SCIENCE OF HE MOSLEMS" but the
  QUACK HAD TO SHAPE HIS PERSONALITY TO FIT
  THAT OF HIS CLIENTELE
  AN ELEMENT OFTEN LACKING IN MODERN CLINICIANS
  CELESTINA WAS A BORN PSYCHOLOGIST
  HER FAITH IN THE MEDICINE OF THE TIMES WAS NEARLY NIL
  "NO HAY COSA QUE MAS LA SANIDAD IMPIDA
  QUE LA DIVERSIDAD MUNDANZA E VARIEDAD THE MANJARES ..."
  NOTHING IMPEDES SANITY AS MUCH AS THE DIVERSITY or
  ABODES AND VICTUALS or DIET ..."
  CELESTINA HAD EMPIRIC KNOWLEDGE and
  RESTORED VIRGINITY IN THOUSAND INSTANCES is mentioned
  in the play  CELESTINA HAD SLENDER NEEDLES
  WAXED SILK THREAD and CATGUT to repair with
  "THE DAMAGES OF ILLICIT LOVE AFFAIRS ..."
  CELESTINA COULD NOT HAVE THRIVED IN ANCIENT
  GREECE or ROME WHERE HARSH PRUDERY WAS LACKING
  THE PLAY MENTIONS THE ENTIRE MEDIEVAL PHARMACOPOEIA
  CELESTINA BECAME A PROTOTYPE and MODEL FOR
  ALL LATER WITCHES  SOOTHSAYERS and QUACKS
  the above is an extract from the elegant account in
  "CENTAUR" by Felix MARTI-IBANEZ [116]
  cont> see> MEDIEVAL

  20151217 ww
      

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