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CURRENT
Hippocrates
~ HIPPOCRATES  or HIPPOKRATES of COS or KOS
               id+ | FATHER OF MEDICINE | 
               id+ | PERSONIFICATION OF MEDICAL ETHICS |
  more precisely   | FATHER OF HIPPOCRATIC (EUROPEAN) MEDICINE | 
  implies          | HIPPOCRATIC SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 
  based upon the CORPUS HIPPORCATUS  name for 
  COMPILATIONS OF MEDICAL WORKS which perdured to the 
  RENAISSANCE as the "HIPPOCRATI SCHOOL OF MEDICINE" 
  and the authoritative source of 
  WESTERN (EUROPEAN) MEDICINE and from which 
  EMERGED THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 
  note the names 
       HIPPORATEA  
       HYPOCRATEA
       HIPPOCRATACEAE 
  hx> SORANUS [#] WROTE IN THE 2ND CENTURY AD THAT
      HIPPOCRATES [#] WAS BORN ON THE ISLAND OF COS or KOS 
  ABOUT 460 BC - HE IS PRESENTED AS A PHYSICIAN AND 
  THE FATHER OF MEDICINE - OTHERS PRESENT HIM AS 
  A PARTICULAR MEDICAL SCHOOL 
  IN ANY CASE HIPPOCRATES IS THE MOST CELEBRATED PHYSICIAN EVER
  HIPPOCRATES IS ALSO VIEWED AS A MAN OF LETTERS 
  A PHILOLOGIST 
  A SCHOLAR AND 
  A PHILOSOPHER
  lit+ THE HIPPOCRATIC WRITINGS ATTRIBUTED TO HIM ARE VAST
       and are seen as SIMILAR TO THOSE BY HOMER 
  THOSE WHO POSTULATE HIPPOCRATES DID NOT EXIST MAY BE WRONG 
  MANY IN ADDITION TO SORANUS ASSERT THAT HE WAS 
  BORN IN KOS or COS AND DIED IN LARISSA IN THESSALY 
  PROBABLY BETWEEN 80-104 BC  
  med> THE COLLECTION OF HIS LETTERS AND 
       HIS ACCOUNT OF THE PLAGUE IN ATHENS A
  RE CONSIDERED TO BE SPURIOUS AS ARE 
  HIS ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY WAS 
  PROPAGATED BY ARABS AS FABULES ALONG OTHER 
  FABULOUS STORIES THAT REACHED EUROPE 
  DURING THE MIDDLE AGES 
  med> HIPPOCRATIC MEDICINE HELD THAT
       ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND LIVING HABITS
  WERE CAUSATIVE OF AILMENTS instead of
  MYSTERIOUS DIVINE CAUSES and CURSES
  HIPPOCRATIC MEDICAL THEORY PROPOSED THAT
  ILLNESSES REPRESENTED AN IMBALANCE IN
  BODY HUMORS WHICH WERE FOUR
  BLOOD, BLACK BILE, YELLOW BILE and PHLEGM
  note that TO THIS DAY WE MAY SUFFER FROM
       "BAD HUMOR" and that "GOOD HUMOR" is
  viewed as "HEALTHY"
  note THE ANCIENTS HAD LITTLE UNDERSTANDING
       OF ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY and other
  BASIC SCIENTIFIC FACTS and in such a context
  HIPPOCRATIC MEDICINE RELIED ON
  OBSERVATION and DOCUMENTATION or in modern terms
  ANAMNESIS or STUDY OF SYMPTOMS
  SYMPTOMS              SIGNS
  NATURAL HISTORY       EVOLUTION OF THE AILMENT
  for therapy in the context of little understanding of
  ETIOLOGY or CAUSE and
  PATHOGENESIS or MECHANISMS of EXPRESSION OF THE CAUSE
  highlighted the basic importance
  often neglected by "modern" medicine of
  "NATURAL HEALING PROCESSES" by an emphasis on
  REST  IMMOBILIZATION and SLEEP which inherently
  were less RISKY than other alternatives 
  note perhaps because of the then limited knowledge of 
       etiology (causes) and pathogenesis (altered physiology) 
  the HIPPOCRATIC MEDICINE stressed 
  the PRINCIPLE of "PRIMUM NON NOCERE" or 
  "MOST OF ALL - DO NO HARM" 
  note perhaps related to the above the core
       HIPPOCRATIC PRINCIPLE STRESSED
  "PRIMUM NON NOCERE" or
  "FIRST NO HARM"
  and to this day is a central principle of
  THE HIPPOCRATIC OATH or alternative versions
  DEFINING THE CODE OF ETHICS OF MEDICNE to which
  PHYSICIANS PLEDGE ALLEGIANCE 
  note presently the increasing highly effective 
       medical pharmacologic agents also call for 
  "PRIMUM NON NOCERE" BECAUSE THE SIDE EFFECTS and 
  UNINTENDED EFFECTS OF THERAPIES ARE INCREASINGLY 
  FREQUENT AND SERIOUS 
  med> hx> HIPPOCRATIC MEDICINE PRODUCED AN IMPORTANT 
           LEGACY OF CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS as for example 
  HIPPOCRATIC FINGERS or CLUBBBING WERE RECONGIZED AS 
  A SIGN OF PULMONARY and CARDIAC PATHOLOGY
  med> HIPPOCRATIC MEDICINE SPOKE OF ILLNESSES AS
       ACUTE or CHRONIC
  ENDEMIC or EPIDEMIC and such concepts as
  PROXYSM  CONVALESCENCE
  med> HIPPOCRATES IS REGARDED AS A PIONEER
       OF CHEST SURGERY 
  lit+ hx> A PHYSICIAN SERVING AUGUSTUS NAMED HYPOKRAS [#] 
           WROTE THE MOST ANCIENT AND VALUABLE COMMENTARY 
  KNOWN AS "DE ARTICULUS" attr to APOLLONIUS CITIENSIS [#] 
  CONCERNED WITH 
  DE NATURA HOMINIS - THE NATURE OF MANKING
  DE SALUBRI VICTUS RATIONE - DIETS
  DE RATIONE VICTUS IN MORBIS ACUTUS - ACUTE DISORDERS 
  PRAENOTIONS - PREMONITIONS 
  PRAEDICTIONS - PREDICTIONS OR PROGNAOSIS 
  APHORISMI - APHORISMS 
  DE MORBIS VULGARIBUS - FREQUENT DISEASES 
  DE FRACTURIS - FRACTURES 
  DE MORIBUS  etc - ON DYING 
  A LEADING EDITION IS BY LITTRE [#] OF PARIS IN 1839
  med> THE HIPPOCRATIC COLLECTION IS EXTENSIVE AND
       DIFFICULT TO CLASSIFY
  THE MEDICAL HIPPOCRATIC SYSTEM
  DIVIDES DISEASES INTO TWO CLASSES
  THOSE DUE TO GENERAL INFLUENCES LIKE SEASONS WATER AND
  THOSE DUE TO PERSONAL (PRIVATE) CAUSES
  HIS MEDICAL PRACTICE WAS SO CAUTIOUS AS TO BE ALMOST FEEBLE
  LEADING TO REPROACHES OF LETTING PATIENTS DIE 
  note "PRIMUM NON NOCERE" - "MOST OF ALL AVOID CAUSING HARM"
  lit+ SOCRATES IS GIVEN CREDIT FOR MANY MAXIMS INCLUDING
       "  WHAT CAN NOT BE CURED BY MEDICINE
          IS CURED BY THE KNIFE                       <maxim
          WHAT CAN NOT BE CURED BY THE KNIFE
          IS CURED BY FIRE "
  art> poetry> "ARS LONGA VITA BREVIS " or            <maxim
               "LIFE IS SHORT AND ART ENDURES" 
   maxim> ARS LONGA  VITA BREVIS " or
              ARTS PERDURE  LIFE IS EPHEMERAL
  or alt versions attr to HIPPOCRATES [#]
  ART IS LASTING
  LIFE IS SHORT
  OPPORTUNITY IS ELUSIVE
  EXPERIMENT IS DANGEROUS
  JUDGMENT IS DIFFICULT
  cont> see> MEDICINE
  lit+ HIPPOCRATIC OATH COULD BE SEEN AS 
       AN INDENTURE AMONG PHYSICIANS FOR HAVING BEEN 
  TAUGHT MEDICAL SKILLS
  also IT MAY REFLECT A BODY OF PYTHAGOREAN BELIEFS
  THEN ACCEPTED IN GREECE
  " I SWEAR BY APOLLO THE PHYSICIAN
    BY AESCULAPIUS HYGEIA AND PANACEA ...
    TO CONSIDER DEAR TO ME AS MY PARENTS
    HIM WHO TAUGHT ME THIS ART ...
    TO LOOK UPON HIS CHILDREN AS MY OWN BROTHERS ...
    I WILL PRESCRIBE REGIMEN FOR THE GOOD ...
    NEVER TO HARM TO ANYONE ...
    NOR GIVE ADVICE WHICH MAY CAUSE DEATH ...
    I WILL KEEP SECRET AND NEVER REVEAL ... "
    {note THE ABOVE OATH IS REGARDED BY
          MANY CURRENT LEADERS AS
    "OLD FASHIONED"  BUT ON THE OTHER HAND
    THE SURGE OF "CORPORATIONS" ENGAGED IN
    "HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT" RAISES THE QUESTION
    OF WHAT ARE THE ETHICAL LIMITS OF THOSE
    WHOSE DRIVING PRINCIPLES ARE TO ACCUMULATE MONEY 
    EVEN BY ILLEGAL ACTS IN THE HOPE OF NOT BEING CAUGHT 
    EVEN IF CAUGHT SUCH "CORPORATE CRIMES" 
    GUILTY VEREDICTS ARE "PUNISHED" AS  
    "COMMERCIAL" RATHER THAN "CRIMINAL" 
    THE CORPORATE CRIMINALS AS INDIVIDUALS 
    ESCAPE AND ARE NOT CONDEMNED NEITHER TO 
    PAY FINES NOR TO SERVE INCARCERATION 
    INSTEAD THEIR CORPORATION MAY FINES WHICH 
    IMPLIES THAT IN-FACT THE SHARE HOLDERS PAY 
    CRIMINAL CORPORATE LEADERS VERY RARELY PAY 
    FOR THE DAMAGES THEY CAUSE 
    see> GALEN  
    cont> see> MEDICINE    see> IMAGES  

    20151213 ww         

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