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ACHONDROPLASIA FACIES MEGALOCEPHALY
"Detail from "Menina"" (see related A | B), 1656 Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez (1599-1660) El Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain
Menina denotes "little lady", who then were dressed as adult women. In this detail of the "Menina" painting the woman depicted has facial features or a "facies" strongly suggestive of achondroplasia (one of many genetic chondro-skeletal disorders causing short stature). Velazquez was also commissioned to paint two men with features of achondroplasia known as "El bufon don Sebastian de Morra" and "Francisco Lezcano, el Nino de Vallecas".
Note the prominent forehead, relatively large head, short bulbous nose, prominent jaw concurrent with short limbs and fingers. These are characteristics of an autosomal dominant gene mutation resulting in a syndrome known as achondroplasia.