EXOPHTHALMOS perhaps GLAUCOMA
"Portrait of an unknown man" (see details), 1851 I. Khrutsky (1810-1851) Art Institute, Minsk, Belarus
A portrait of an unknown - it depicts eye asymmetry - one eye is bulging (exophthalmos) - one possible association is with glaucoma. Because this is a unilateral sign, hyperthyroidism (also a cause of exophthalmos) is unlikely.
See companion detail for medical comment.