"Carlos de Asturias (1545-1568)" (see related A) Sofonisba Anguissola El Prado Museum , Madrid, Spain
Noted to be malformed and mentally unstable. He inherited the Habsburg facies from his father Felipe II, who inherited his facies from Carlos I (Charles V for the Anglo-Saxons). The high inbreeding pattern among the Habsburgs is illustrated that he only four great-grandparents - his parents consanguinity was equivalent of being siblings. In 1562 he sustained a head injury. Apparently this resulted in an increased intracranial pressure. To save his life, he underwent a trepanation performed by Andreas Vesalius, otherwise known as Andries van Wesel, in the Low Countries (modern Belgium and the Netherlands). Vesalius is famous to this day for his classic treatise of human anatomy "De humani corporis fabrica".