DREAM DREAD DEATH VISION TRANCE
Nightmare Night Nothing Nix Noxious Nocturnal
Mara Ruin Mar Mars Marathon
Morbus Morbidity Mortality
This overview is concerned with DREAMS, SLEEP and DEATH - in fact SLEEP is like slipping into reversible DEATH populated by DREAMS and NIGHTMARES. In Medicine, MORBUS and MORBIDITY also point to DEATH. In English, MAR denotes ruin and MARA is a goddess of EVIL, SICKNESS and DEATH. This summary is an apology for the complexities addressed next.
Although, NIGHT, NIGHTMARE and MARA relate to the realm of SLEEP, these notions also concern those persons who claim that their dreams are special and should be accepted by others because they are prophetic. People who believe to be PROPHETS or VISIONARIES often are insane, charlatans or worse. Visions accepted as religious dogmas were and continue to be motivations for wars. Beyond this perspective is the medical realm of TRANsitory aspects of dreaming or TRANces - "visions" arising internally from altered psyches.
DREAM from DREMATI, DRAYATE, DORMIRE, SPATY, LAMBATE, SLUIPEN, SLYPPYJ, and SOMNUS from Sanskrit, Ukrainian, old German, Latin, and Dutch convey ideas of SLEEP, to fall or SLIP, SLUMBER, SOMNOLENT and DORMANT. Sleep and dreaming can be induced by HYPNOTICS, so name after HYPNOS, the emblem of SLEEP, or by cerebral disorders, in Medical parlance ENCEPHALOPATHIES. Terms like DELUSION, ILLUSION, DELIRIUM, HALLUCINATION point to FANTASTIC and FANTASY often elevated to immortal POEMS, a term from POI denoting NURTURING as if not only humans need nutrients but also need dreams and fantasies.
The idea NIGHT may imply NO or NOTHING as in NIX, NICHT, NICH or NICHOHO in Latin, German and Ukrainian. However, having a DREAM is inherent to the process of SLIPing into nightly SLEEP. To this day, we say "good night", a reflection of the realization that those asleep may meet MARA, the shaper of nightMARES. Scientists note that profound sleeping as if "dead to the world" is less encumbered by dreams and nightmares.
In mythology, MORPHEUS is the shaper of dreams and points to MORPHINE, a NARCOTIC or substance that induces NARCOSIS or numbness of sleep. The task to craft FANTASTIC dreams, for the most part pleasant, was given to PHANTASOS. As mentioned earlier, one task of MARA is to MAR our sleep. In fact the tasks of MARA are far greater. In modern Hindi, MARA means to cause harm and death. In Sanskrit MRNATI denotes "to crush" and in Ukrainian, MARA is the personification of evil as underscored by MARNO, MARYTY, MARATY, MARYVO which denote bad outcome, delirium, dream, and to soil. In Latin, MOR, MORA, MORtis and MORire mean fate, delay, death and to die. Such ideas underscore that to SLIP into SLEEP is like placing a life in suspense or "on deLAY". Those who do not awake are called LATE. Some may be surprised that MARA is also present in MARAthon which in fact is quite logical since this sort of exercise or race requires the ability to overcome suffering.
Several saints claimed that their dreams were visions, in the sense that they illuminated a new way. The words VEDA, VEDE, VYDNO, VIDE, VISUS, VISUAL, from Sanskrit, Ukrainian and Latin mean knowledge, guide, visible, see and vision. These ideas articulate with VEDU, VEDE, WITAN, WEISE, WIT, and WISE which in Sanskrit, Ukrainian, and old English stand for I guide or lead, to know or to show a way and sense, manner and mindfulness.
Perhaps the above paragraph could be summarized by "seeing is believing". It is also true that VISions are VIStas that are indiVISible from the indiVIDual perceiving them, that is, the reality of VISions is psychic. Some scientists have subjected their visions or inspirations to rigorous confirmation tests on the basis of reason, that is by methods accessible to others. On the other hand, religious visions and revelations are examined by theologians in terms of faith and dogma instead of reason. In any case, the evolution of Christian churches were shaped by religious visions and revelations, the latest among which were those that framed the Mormon Church. Currently in the USA, there is a resurgence of religious fervor including visions and revelations which seem to provide a basis for a "Newly-Born" form of Christianity. Many among "Newly-Born" Christians appears to sustains the view that their religious visions must impact the legal and political process to rectify the rest of the nation.
Delirium, delusions, hallucinations and fantasies, denote perceptions that are not based on reality. It is relevant to grasp the contrasts between these terms. In modern medical parlance, delirium implies an acute reversible cerebral disorder causing serious disturbance of intellectual functions. Unreal perceptions while awake, can be either delusions or fantasies. Delusions are felt to be true in contrast to fantasies which are perceived as unreal. Hallucinations are sensorial in nature and can be induced by hallucinogenic drugs such as mescaline or LSD, or in addicts be induced by withdrawal of drugs such as alcohol.
Some addicts say they use drugs to "take a trip" away from reality. The destructive effects of addictive hallucinogenic drugs are defined by ancient roots found in delirium, hallucination and illusion which point toward "leaving the alley" and a state of "homelessness" or of "being lost".
To close, it is in the nature of all young animals to dream and fantasize - such is the energy that prompts young animals to play - notably though, young animals do not kill. Adult minds also fantasize and play with psychological distractions, including "games" such as killing animals . It is a fact that power corrupts the psyche and weakens reason. Many of those who gain POLItical power seek to impose personal visions as national POLIcies. An early signal of an imbalance between vision and reason is intolerance. Often the next stage in a degenerative sequence is the promotion of violence by the use of POLIce and POLIcing POLIcies.
P.S. - in German AUGEN for "eye" and AUGURY in English for "visionary" may be indicative of a relationship - do you know about this perspective? - I could not find much on such possibility.