"Socrates (a)" (see details A | B) (see related A), 350 Roman copy of a Greek original Capitoline Museums, Rome, Italy
Socrates (469-399 BC) is at the center of Western philosophy. Socrates was interested in promoting a philosophy centered in the ancient Greek proverb "know thyself" than nature in general. The "Socratic Method" used today by many teachers is mentioned in companion images and aphorisms. In essence, Socrates contributed mostly to ethics. With the ascent of "might is right" and the decline of democracy in Athens, Socrates became a "godfly" to the authorities. A jury of his peers condemned him to death by poison, a blemish that remains on the Athenian heritage. In his final moments, Socrates exclaimed "Crito, we owe a cock to Aesculapius ..." (a medical symbol of awareness). Socrates chose death over being silenced by a decree banning him from teaching.